Source: US Department of Agriculture/US Department of Health & Human Services
The new Dietary Guidelines limit the number of food servings in high calorie food groups for substantial nutrition and health promotion. According to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines, a sedentary female between the ages of 19-30 needs approximately 2,000 calories, and a male needs 2,400 calories per day. For a 2,000-calorie diet, this equates to 4- fruit, 5-vegetable, 8- grain, 3- dairy, 5.5 -ounces of protein, 6-fat servings and 8-tsp of sugar (jelly, jam, jelly beans, lemonade). For a 2,400- calorie diet, this equates to 5- fruit, 5-vegetable, 9- grain, 3- dairy, 8 -ounces of protein, 8-fat servings and 8-tsp of sugar (jelly, jam, jelly beans, lemonade).
A moderately active female between the ages of 19-30 needs approximately 2,200 calories, and a male needs approximately 2,800 calories per day. For a 2,200-calorie diet, this equates to 4- fruit, 6-vegetable, 9- grain, 3- dairy, 7 -ounces of protein, 6-fat servings and 8-tsp of sugar (jelly, jam, jelly beans, lemonade). For a 2,800- calorie diet, this equates to 6- fruit, 6-vegetable, 11- grain, 3- dairy, 10 -ounces of protein, 8-fat servings and 9-tsp of sugar (jelly, jam, jelly beans, lemonade).
According to the Surgeon General, the average adult needs approximately 60-90 minutes of exercise per day to maintain a healthy weight, lose weight, flexibility and muscle tone, and decrease the incidence of disease states, e.g. heart, diabetes, cancer, etc.
Note: “Active” does not imply only collegiate or professional sports participation, nor does it classify a person as underweight or overweight. The term “Active” defines leisure exercise activities. A collegiate or professional athlete typically requires additional calories for muscle energy and endurance.
Carbohydrates are a cheap source of energy for all tissues, muscle, and neurons, particularly brain function. Foods high in carbohydrate offer a variety of vitamins, minerals and fiber.
The recommended fiber intake is approximately 14 grams for every 1,000 calories consumed. Fiber is classified as soluble or insoluble. Soluble fiber attracts water, slows digestion, and improves nutrient absorption in the gastrointestinal track. Soluble fiber sources are oat bran, nuts, seeds, beans, lentils, peas, citrus fruit, apples, and strawberries. Insoluble fiber does not attract water and sweeps through the gastrointestinal track like a broom. Insoluble fiber sources are bran, vegetables and fruits with edible seeds, and whole-wheat flour.
Under the 2005 Dietary Guidelines, vegetable and fruit servings increased from 5 servings to 9 servings per day. Grain servings remain the same, approximately 6 servings per day. The new American plate contains 2/3 fruit and vegetables (non- starchy and starchy) and 1/3 protein. On average, the new American diet will include 45-65% of the total calories from carbohydrate.
Proteins are vital to healthy cell structure, bodily fluids balance, enzymes, hormones, blood cells, and immune system. Proteins are classified as complete or incomplete proteins. A complete protein contains all essential amino acids and includes foods such as animal meat, dairy, eggs, and fish. An incomplete protein does not contain all the essential amino acids and includes foods such as grains, legumes, lentils, nuts, peas, corn, rice, and starchy and nonstarchy vegetables. It is important to complement incomplete protein with complete protein for a whole food source. For example, combine rice and beans, vegetables with grain or pasta, and humus with bread. Under the 2005 Dietary Guidelines, protein servings decreased from 6 ounces to 5.5 ounces per day. Dairy servings remain the same, approximately 3 servings per day. On average, the new American diet will include 10-35% of the total calories from protein.
Fats are an important food source for energy, satiety, palatability, transport for fat-soluble vitamins (A-D-E-K), cushion for internal organs and skin, and insulation to maintain body temperature. Under the 2005 Dietary Guidelines, fat servings changed from “sparingly” to approximately 24 grams per day or 6 teaspoons per day. On average, the new American diet will include 20-35% of the total calories from fat. Fats are classified as follows:
Saturated Fat : These fats are found in animal food products such as butter, whole milk dairy products, fatty meats, as well as vegetable products such as coconut, palm, and palm kernel oils. Saturated fats elevate the bad LDL- cholesterol and over time accumulate and clog blood flow.
Monounsaturated fats are found in olive, canola, and peanut oils, peanuts, pecans, almonds, and avocados. These fats help lower LDL-cholesterol (bad cholesterol) and help boost HDL-Cholesterol (good cholesterol).
There are two main families of polyunsaturated fats: omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. These are essential fatty acids important for brain and nerve function. The best Omega-3 fatty acids are found in soybean, flaxseed, flaxseed cereals, walnuts, tofu, leafy green vegetables, canola and olive oils, salmon, albacore tuna, lake trout, mackerel and sardines. The best Omega 6-fatty acids are found in soybean, corn, and safflower oils.
Through a chemical process, liquid fat can be changed from a liquid to solid fat.
Trans Fatty Acids:
Trans fatty acids are formed from hydrogenated fats. Trans fatty acids initiate a rise in LDL-cholesterol (unhealthy cholesterol) and decrease in the HDL-cholesterol (healthy cholesterol). Trans fatty acids are found in fried foods, bakery items, convenience snack foods, and margarine.